Chapter: 06 – Laws of Kiddush

01. Zakhor and Shamor

As we have seen above (1:8), there are two crucial mitzvot that form the backbone of Shabbat: Zakhor and Shamor. Shamor instructs us to refrain from all labor. In this way we clear space in our soul, which we are … Continue reading

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02. Fulfilling the Mitzva of Zakhor

One fulfills the Torah obligation of Zakhor by invoking the sanctity of Shabbat and specifying that it commemorates the creation of the world and the Exodus from Egypt. However, the Sages wished for everyone to fulfill this mitzva using a … Continue reading

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03. Kiddush over Wine

The Sages instituted the recitation of kiddush over wine because it is the most dignified beverage, as it provides both nourishment and good cheer. They similarly instituted that a berakha be recited over a cup of wine at other joyful … Continue reading

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04. Acceptable Kiddush Wines

The laws of acceptable kiddush wines are derived from the laws governing which wines could be used on the altar in Temple times. Any wine that was deemed unacceptable because of its repulsiveness is also pasul (ritually unfit) for kiddush. … Continue reading

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05. The Required Amount of Wine

In order to fulfill the mitzva of kiddush there must be enough wine in the cup to be considered significant, so that the berakha is recited over something. This amount is the volume of an egg and a half (one … Continue reading

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06. The Laws of Kos Shel Berakha

The Sages ordained that a number of berakhot be recited over a kos (goblet) of wine, such as the berakha over betrothal, marriage, Birkat Ha-mazon (Grace after Meals), kiddush, and havdala. Since these berakhot are made over a kos to … Continue reading

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07. Distributing Wine to All Present

In order to fulfill the mitzva of kiddush, a melo lugmav of wine must be drunk by the person making kiddush or a member of his audience (as explained in section 5 of this chapter). The rest of the listeners … Continue reading

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08. Kiddush Customs and Covering the Challah

There is a widespread custom to stand during the Friday night kiddush because it attests to the creation of the world, and witnesses must stand when giving testimony. The Arizal, basing himself on mystical considerations, also recommends standing; this is … Continue reading

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09. The Prohibition of Eating and Drinking before Kiddush

Once Shabbat has begun, it is a mitzva to fulfill the Torah mandate of Zakhor as soon as possible by making kiddush. The Sages ordained that nothing should be eaten before kiddush. One may not even drink water before kiddush, … Continue reading

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010. Reciting Kiddush at the Place of the Meal

The Sages ordained that kiddush be made at the place of the meal (“be-makom se’uda”), for Scripture states: “Call Shabbat ‘delight’” (Yeshayahu 58:13), teaching us that specifically where one delights in Shabbat with bread or pastries he must proclaim Shabbat, … Continue reading

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