Chapter: 10 – Bishul (Cooking)

01. Introduction

It takes a great deal of effort to prepare food. Animals eat their food raw, in its natural state, but this is insufficient for man, whose nature is far more refined and complex. Man must produce his own food. First … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 01. Introduction

02. General Principles of Bishul

Bishul is the melakha that prepares or improves food, whether through seething, baking, or roasting. What defines this melakha is that food is prepared by means of fire’s heat. The food is softened by the heat, and the tastes within … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 02. General Principles of Bishul

03. Cooking Is Prohibited, Reheating Cooked Food Is Permitted

A fundamental rule of the laws of Shabbat is that one may not create a new entity. During the other six days of the week, we emulate God, in whose image we were created, by busying ourselves with creating and … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 03. Cooking Is Prohibited, Reheating Cooked Food Is Permitted

04. Yad Soledet Bo

A fundamental issue in the laws of Shabbat is establishing the temperature of yad soledet bo (the temperature at which the hand recoils). The Sages state that this is the minimum temperature that is still capable of cooking food. However, … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 04. Yad Soledet Bo

05. Cooking Liquids According to the Sephardic Custom

We have already learned that there is no prohibition of cooking something that has already been cooked. Therefore, one may reheat cooked food on Shabbat. For example, one may remove cooked fish or fried schnitzel from the refrigerator and reheat … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 05. Cooking Liquids According to the Sephardic Custom

06. The Yemenite and Ashkenazic Customs Regarding Cooking Liquids

As we have seen, according to Rambam, Rosh, and Ran the principle of ein bishul aĥar bishul applies to liquids as well as solids. Thus as long as the liquids were fully cooked, even if they have now cooled off, … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 06. The Yemenite and Ashkenazic Customs Regarding Cooking Liquids

07. Kli Rishon, Kli Sheni, Kli Shlishi

Cooking is normally done by putting food into a vessel that is on a fire. The question arises: If one has a pot that is not on a fire or on a plata, but that contains a liquid that is … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 07. Kli Rishon, Kli Sheni, Kli Shlishi

08. Preparing Tea on Shabbat

One who wishes to prepare tea using a tea bag must do so in a kli shlishi. This means that he must first pour the hot water into a cup (which becomes a kli sheni). Then, from this cup, he … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 08. Preparing Tea on Shabbat

09. Pouring Hot Liquids into a Damp Cup

Halakha is unique in its precision and its focus on even the tiniest details. This precision elevates all our activities and gives them spiritual meaning and value. It should come as no surprise, then, that the Torah prohibition of cooking … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 09. Pouring Hot Liquids into a Damp Cup

10. Davar Gush

As we stated in section 7, a kli rishon can cook anything, a kli sheni can cook only kalei ha-bishul, and a kli shlishi cannot cook at all. However, the poskim disagree regarding the status of a davar gush (hot, … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 10. Davar Gush

11. Cooking after Baking

As we established in section 3, one may reheat fully cooked food on Shabbat, because the prohibition of Bishul applies when one changes the status of food from raw to cooked. However, once a food is cooked, one may reheat … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 11. Cooking after Baking

12. Megis (Stirring or Mixing)

Stirring food in a pot helps it cook better and more evenly, and therefore one who stirs food that is not fully cooked on Shabbat transgresses a Torah prohibition. The act of stirring is known in rabbinic literature as megis. … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 12. Megis (Stirring or Mixing)

13. Adding Water to Food on the Plata to Prevent It from Burning

If the water in the cholent pot evaporates and one is concerned that the cholent will burn, one may not add cold water to the pot, because the water will become cooked. But if there is an urn on the … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 13. Adding Water to Food on the Plata to Prevent It from Burning

14. Introduction to Hashhaya

Earlier we learned about Bishul, which is prohibited by Torah law. Now we will examine two rabbinic enactments: 1) On Friday afternoon, one may not leave on the fire foods that are not yet cooked. 2) On Shabbat, one may … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 14. Introduction to Hashhaya

15. Food That Is Already Cooked

One may leave food on an open fire on Friday afternoon if there would be no reason for anyone to raise the flame under the food. Poskim disagree what constitutes “no reason.” According to Rif and Rambam, if the food … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 15. Food That Is Already Cooked

16. When the Flame Is Covered

As we have learned, if food is not adequately cooked (whichever definition of “adequately,” as defined in the previous section, is adopted), one may not leave it on the fire before Shabbat begins, because one may come to turn up … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 16. When the Flame Is Covered

17. Hashhaya in an Electric Oven and Cooking Using a Timer

If one wishes to leave food that is not fully cooked in an electric oven on Friday afternoon, he must do something to remind himself of Shabbat, to ensure that he will not turn up the heat on Shabbat. One … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 17. Hashhaya in an Electric Oven and Cooking Using a Timer

18. Hanaĥa

Now that we have learned the laws of hashhaya, leaving food on a heat source before Shabbat, we will now explore the laws of hanaĥa: placing food on Shabbat somewhere that it will be warmed up. As we saw in … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 18. Hanaĥa

19. Haĥzara

Sometimes one removes a pot from the plata on Shabbat in order to remove food, and then wishes to return it to the plata. May one take this action, known as haĥzara? Once again there is disagreement among the poskim. … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 19. Haĥzara

20. Hanaĥa and Haĥzara on a Plata

As we learned in the previous section, if food was placed on a plata before Shabbat, even those who are stringent permit removing this food from the plata and replacing it. Therefore, if food was placed on the periphery of … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 20. Hanaĥa and Haĥzara on a Plata

21. Returning Foods to the Oven

If a pot containing food was in a hot oven, and the pot was removed from the oven so that food could be removed from it, it may not be returned to the oven. There are two reasons for this. … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 21. Returning Foods to the Oven

22. Principles of Hatmana

Because lighting a fire on Shabbat is prohibited, it is difficult to keep food warm. Nowadays we have electric platas that solve this problem, but in the times of the Sages this was a great challenge. One way to accomplish … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 22. Principles of Hatmana

23. Hatmana with a Plata and a Slow Cooker

One may not wrap pots on the plata in towels or blankets even before Shabbat. Although the towels or blanket do not generate heat, nevertheless since the pot is on the plata and the plata generates heat, this is considered … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 23. Hatmana with a Plata and a Slow Cooker

24. Electric Boilers

One may not benefit from water that was heated in a forbidden fashion on Shabbat. But if the water was heated in a permissible fashion, one may benefit from it on Shabbat. Seemingly, then, if a boiler was on before … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 24. Electric Boilers

25. Solar Boilers

The Torah prohibition of cooking refers to cooking using the heat of a fire (esh) or using something that was itself heated by fire (toldot ha-esh). In contrast, one may cook using the heat of the sun (ĥama). Therefore, one … Continue reading

Posted in 10 - Bishul (Cooking) | Comments Off on 25. Solar Boilers