Chapter: 30 – Teĥum Shabbat

01. General Principles of Teĥum Shabbat

The need to travel from place to place stems from man’s deficiency: he cannot find his livelihood and meet his needs by remaining stationary. So he must roam and leave his place. But the idea of Shabbat is for every … Continue reading

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02. Squaring the Teĥum

The Sages established that one’s mekom shevita on Shabbat is square, and thus his teĥum is square as well. This means that if he is spending Shabbat in a field, and his mekom shevita is thus four amot, the measurement … Continue reading

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03. Teĥum Shabbat Is Individual

Teĥum Shabbat is specific to every individual, based on his location. For example, let us say that the homes of two neighbors (who do not live in a city) are located 1,000 amot apart from each other. Each neighbor has … Continue reading

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04. Spending Shabbat In or Outside a City

For someone who is spending Shabbat in a city or town, whether its residents are Jewish or non-Jewish, the whole area that is built up contiguously is considered one place, and the 2,000 amot of the teĥum are measured from … Continue reading

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05. Measuring Teĥum in Rabbinic Times and Nowadays

The Sages established rules for measuring the teĥum Shabbat as precisely as possible. First, they declared: “Teĥum Shabbat may be measured only with a rope that is fifty amot long, no more or less” (Eruvin 57b). If a longer rope … Continue reading

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06. The Cardinal Directions and Squaring a City

As we have seen (section 2), we square a person’s mekom shevita to determine his teĥum. If he is in a field (i.e., not in a city or town), his mekom shevita is a square with four-ama sides; if he … Continue reading

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07. Cases In Which We Do Not Square a City

As we have seen, by squaring the city, we add space in the corners to the teĥum. However, the Sages pointed out that sometimes we cannot draw straight lines to square the whole city, because the resulting square would include … Continue reading

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08. Connecting Settled Areas

As long as the houses in a city are contiguous, meaning that they are not farther away from one another than the size of a karpif (a large courtyard, approximately 32 m long), they are considered part of one area … Continue reading

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09. Overlapping Squares

When the squares or rectangles formed around two cities overlap, even when there is no joint eruv, the overlapping area connects the cities. We draw a new rectangle around the entire area to include both cities. The residents of both … Continue reading

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10. The Status of Large Cities

If a highway within a city is more than 64 m wide and bisects the entire city, then the city is viewed as divided in two, and the teĥum Shabbat for residents of each of the two sections is calculated … Continue reading

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11. Traveling Beyond the Teĥum and Items Arriving from Beyond the Teĥum

One who traveled beyond the boundaries of the teĥum, whether knowingly or unknowingly, forfeits his 2,000 amot and may now only move within his four amot (SA 405:1; n. 1 above). Should he need to move his bowels, he may … Continue reading

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12. Eruv Teĥumin

If one wants to walk on Shabbat to a place that lies beyond his teĥum, he can render it permissible by making an eruv teĥumin before Shabbat, that is, by establishing his mekom shevita at the place where he puts … Continue reading

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13. Placing the Eruv Teĥumin and Reciting the Berakha

One who wishes to make an eruv by placing food must set aside two meals’ worth of food. If bread is used, it must amount to the volume of six eggs, which is approximately 300 ml. (Others maintain that it … Continue reading

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14. Establishing a Conditional Eruv for All Local Residents

One may place an eruv conditionally. For example, if one knows that on Shabbat two Torah scholars will be lecturing in two nearby towns, but he has yet to decide if he will attend the lecture to the east, the … Continue reading

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