Chapter: 11 – The Times of Keriat Shema and Shacharit

09 – Praying Vatikin Individually versus Praying in a Minyan

The Acharonim disagree over what is preferable: praying vatikin individually, or praying in a minyan after the time of vatikin? Some say that since the Chachamim praise the person who prays vatikin and teach that no harm befalls him the … Continue reading

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01 – The Morning

The first time of the day that has halachic significance is known as “amud hashachar” or “alot hashachar” (dawn). In a case of extenuating circumstances, one may begin reciting Shema and praying the Amidah from the time of amud hashachar, … Continue reading

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02 – Calculation of the Morning Times

According to many, the time difference between amud hashachar and netz hachamah in Israel is the time it takes to walk a distance of four mil, which is approximately 72 minutes. This means that in the months of Nisan or … Continue reading

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03 – The Time of Keriat Shema

The time to recite Shema in the morning is learned from the expression that appears in the Torah passage regarded the Shema, “u’vekumecha,” “when you get up,” meaning the time when people normally wake up. There are people who rise … Continue reading

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04 – The Time of the Amidah

Anshei Knesset HaGedolah instituted praying three prayers every day, and established their times to correspond to the Tamid offerings. The morning Tamid was brought starting from amud hashachar, and based on that, the time of praying Shacharit l’chatchilah should begin … Continue reading

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05 – Vatikin at Netz HaChamah

As we mentioned, the most praiseworthy time to recite Shema and to pray the Amidah is as the devoted ones prayed, at vatikin. They would recite Shema slightly before netz hachamah and begin to pray the Amidah at netz hachamah. … Continue reading

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06 – The Precise Times of Vatikin and Netz

Netz hachamah is the time when the sun rises, and even though this definition is presumably clear and simple, in actuality, it is rather complex. First, the duration of the sun’s ascent, which begins from the second we can see … Continue reading

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07 – How Early May One Begin to Pray?

L’chatchilah, a person should not recite the Amidah before vatikin because, according to a number of poskim, the time to pray l’chatchilah begins at netz hachamah and lasts four hours. The ideal time to pray the Amidah is immediately at … Continue reading

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08 – How Early Is One Permitted to Pray in Extenuating Circumstances?

In a case of extenuating circumstances, one may recite Birkot Keriat Shema from the time of amud hashachar, which is 72 minutes before sunrise (in the months of Nisan and Tishrei).1 However, as long as it is possible to recite … Continue reading

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10 – The Proportional Hours and Their Corresponding Laws

The time of Keriat Shema lasts for the first three hours of the day and the time of the Amidah for four hours. “Hours” refers to proportional hours. That is to say, the day is divided into twelve equal parts, … Continue reading

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11 – The Practical Halachah Regarding the Final Time to Recite Shema and Pray the Amidah

The time to recite Keriat Shema lasts for the first three hours of the day, for until then people are still waking up. In that way, one indeed fulfills the mitzvah of reciting Shema “u’vekumecha,” (“when you get up”) – … Continue reading

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12 – Praying in a Minyan vs. Abiding by the Times

Since the Chachamim instituted the recital of Shema together with its berachot, and established praying the Amidah immediately following, l’chatchilah the time of Shacharit should be set to allow people to succeed in reciting Shema before the first three hours … Continue reading

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