Author Archives: מנהל האתר

14. Establishing a Conditional Eruv for All Local Residents

One may place an eruv conditionally. For example, if one knows that on Shabbat two Torah scholars will be lecturing in two nearby towns, but he has yet to decide if he will attend the lecture to the east, the … Continue reading

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13. Placing the Eruv Teĥumin and Reciting the Berakha

One who wishes to make an eruv by placing food must set aside two meals’ worth of food. If bread is used, it must amount to the volume of six eggs, which is approximately 300 ml. (Others maintain that it … Continue reading

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12. Eruv Teĥumin

If one wants to walk on Shabbat to a place that lies beyond his teĥum, he can render it permissible by making an eruv teĥumin before Shabbat, that is, by establishing his mekom shevita at the place where he puts … Continue reading

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11. Traveling Beyond the Teĥum and Items Arriving from Beyond the Teĥum

One who traveled beyond the boundaries of the teĥum, whether knowingly or unknowingly, forfeits his 2,000 amot and may now only move within his four amot (SA 405:1; n. 1 above). Should he need to move his bowels, he may … Continue reading

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10. The Status of Large Cities

If a highway within a city is more than 64 m wide and bisects the entire city, then the city is viewed as divided in two, and the teĥum Shabbat for residents of each of the two sections is calculated … Continue reading

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09. Overlapping Squares

When the squares or rectangles formed around two cities overlap, even when there is no joint eruv, the overlapping area connects the cities. We draw a new rectangle around the entire area to include both cities. The residents of both … Continue reading

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08. Connecting Settled Areas

As long as the houses in a city are contiguous, meaning that they are not farther away from one another than the size of a karpif (a large courtyard, approximately 32 m long), they are considered part of one area … Continue reading

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07. Cases In Which We Do Not Square a City

As we have seen, by squaring the city, we add space in the corners to the teĥum. However, the Sages pointed out that sometimes we cannot draw straight lines to square the whole city, because the resulting square would include … Continue reading

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06. The Cardinal Directions and Squaring a City

As we have seen (section 2), we square a person’s mekom shevita to determine his teĥum. If he is in a field (i.e., not in a city or town), his mekom shevita is a square with four-ama sides; if he … Continue reading

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05. Measuring Teĥum in Rabbinic Times and Nowadays

The Sages established rules for measuring the teĥum Shabbat as precisely as possible. First, they declared: “Teĥum Shabbat may be measured only with a rope that is fifty amot long, no more or less” (Eruvin 57b). If a longer rope … Continue reading

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04. Spending Shabbat In or Outside a City

For someone who is spending Shabbat in a city or town, whether its residents are Jewish or non-Jewish, the whole area that is built up contiguously is considered one place, and the 2,000 amot of the teĥum are measured from … Continue reading

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03. Teĥum Shabbat Is Individual

Teĥum Shabbat is specific to every individual, based on his location. For example, let us say that the homes of two neighbors (who do not live in a city) are located 1,000 amot apart from each other. Each neighbor has … Continue reading

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02. Squaring the Teĥum

The Sages established that one’s mekom shevita on Shabbat is square, and thus his teĥum is square as well. This means that if he is spending Shabbat in a field, and his mekom shevita is thus four amot, the measurement … Continue reading

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01. General Principles of Teĥum Shabbat

The need to travel from place to place stems from man’s deficiency: he cannot find his livelihood and meet his needs by remaining stationary. So he must roam and leave his place. But the idea of Shabbat is for every … Continue reading

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08. An Eruv That Becomes Invalidated on Shabbat

Sometimes it becomes apparent during Shabbat that a wire from the eruv has snapped in a certain place, thus invalidating the eruv. Two questions then arise: 1) May the eruv be fixed on Shabbat? 2) If it turns out that … Continue reading

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07. An Eruv Where Shabbat Desecrators Live

The eruv, the two meals’ worth of food that all residents within the enclosed area own jointly, unites all the residents and renders the enclosed area a private domain, where carrying is permitted. However, all this is on condition that … Continue reading

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06. Setting Aside the Eruv and Reciting Its Berakha

It is customary to use matza for the eruv, as it has a long shelf life and can continue to serve as the eruv for as long as it remains edible (SA 368:5). Common practice is to set aside a … Continue reading

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05. Forming a Partnership Using Two Meals’ Worth of Food

As we have seen (section 1 above), in order to transform a reshut ha-rabim or karmelit into a reshut ha-yaĥid in which carrying is permitted, it is not enough to enclose it in a fence or tzurat ha-petaĥ. A partnership … Continue reading

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04. Fences, Breaches, and a Tel Ha-mitlaket

A fence that is ten tefaĥim high is considered a bona fide wall and is effective in transforming even a reshut ha-rabim by Torah law into a reshut ha-yaĥid (as explained above in 21:2-3). Even a chain-link fence is acceptable … Continue reading

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03. Ensuring That the Wire Is Stretched Across the Tops of the Posts and Electrical Poles

One must take care that the wire that serves as the lintel stretches over the poles, not alongside them, as in a tzurat ha-petaĥ the lintel sits atop the doorposts. Even if the post is low and the wire runs … Continue reading

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02. Tzurat Ha-petaĥ

We have learned (21:8-9) that according to most poskim, today’s streets are considered a karmelit. Thus, to permit carrying in the streets, it is sufficient to surround them with structures resembling doorways (tzurot ha-petaĥ), which form a kind of wall … Continue reading

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01. Transforming a Public Domain

As we learned in chapter 21, one may transport items on Shabbat within a private domain (reshut ha-yaĥid) but not more than four amot within a public domain (reshut ha-rabim) and not from a public to a private domain and … Continue reading

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14. Seeing a Non-Observant Doctor

If a sick person whose life is not threatened needs to see a doctor on Shabbat for an examination or treatment, he should try to visit a religious doctor who knows how to avoid melakhot that are prohibited by Torah … Continue reading

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13. Physical Therapy, Massage, and Acupuncture

Physical therapy exercises are often meant to restore function to limbs or muscles that have atrophied as a result of injury or paralysis. If it is not strictly necessary to do the exercises on Shabbat, one should not do them … Continue reading

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12. Permitted Actions

On Shabbat, one may perform therapeutic treatments that are not normally done with the aid of medications. Since there is no concern that one will come to grind ingredients, such treatment is not included in the prohibition of medicine on … Continue reading

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11. Measuring for Medical Purposes and Using a Thermometer

When medically necessary, one may use a regular mercury thermometer to take someone’s temperature. One may also use a manual blood pressure monitor. Although without a significant need one may not measure things on Shabbat, as this is a weekday … Continue reading

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10. Opening Medicine Packages

When it is permissible to take medicine but it is packaged in plastic, paper, or cardboard, one may tear open the packaging in order to get to the medicine. Those who are stringent make sure to destroy the packaging, rendering … Continue reading

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09. Adhesive Bandages, Cloth Bandages, and Treating Wounds

One may use an adhesive bandage (“Band-Aid”) to protect a wound or a sensitive area from the friction caused by clothing or other objects. Even one who is bothered by a mild ailment may do so, since an adhesive bandage … Continue reading

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08. Ointments and Compresses

Even when using medicine is permissible, one may not apply topical medication (such as creams or ointments) to a bandage or a wound. If one applies ointment and smoothes its surface to spread it, he violates Torah law, as Memare’aĥ … Continue reading

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07. Injections, Intravenous Infusion, and Nursing

Sometimes, a regular sick person needs an injection or intravenous (IV) infusion on Shabbat. Since a subcutaneous injection does not necessarily cause bleeding, halakha views it no differently from other types of medicine: it is permitted for a sick person. … Continue reading

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06. Medications Taken in Regular Doses

If one began taking a medication during the week, and it must be taken for several days consecutively so that skipping the Shabbat dose will harm its effectiveness, he may continue taking the medicine on Shabbat. This is because some … Continue reading

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05. Modern Medications

Some maintain that one may take modern, mass-produced medications on Shabbat for any type of ache or pain, as there is no real concern that anyone will grind anything in order to produce the medicine. However, most poskim maintain that … Continue reading

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04. The Enactment Against Medicine – Grinding Ingredients

The Sages further enacted that one who is bothered by an ailment or mild illness may not obtain medical treatment on Shabbat. That is, he may not ingest medicine, apply a medicinal ointment, or take any actions designed for the … Continue reading

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03. A Mildly Sick Person and One Experiencing Discomfort

If one walks around and seems to be healthy, but in fact is mildly sick or experiencing discomfort, his status is the same as that of anyone else. He must observe all the Shabbat prohibitions, including the rabbinic ones. The … Continue reading

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02. A Regular Sick Person

As is well known, there are two types of Shabbat prohibitions: Torah prohibitions and rabbinic prohibitions (the latter type is also called shvut). There is a principle that one desecrates Shabbat and performs even melakhot prohibited by Torah law on … Continue reading

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01. Principles of the Halakhot of Sick People

There are three categories of sick people according to halakha: 1) a gravely ill person – one whose life is in danger; 2) a “regular” sick person – one whose whole body is ill but whose life is not in … Continue reading

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17. Mobile Phones and Weapons Necessary for Health and Security

In an area enclosed by an eruv, emergency medical professionals and volunteers who always carry beepers or cell phones may carry these devices on Shabbat. Similarly, one who always carries a pistol or rifle may carry it on Shabbat. Muktzeh … Continue reading

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16. Police Activity on Shabbat

All agree that police officers must desecrate Shabbat to save lives. Thus, if a suspicious object is found, or if dangerous people are seen engaging in suspicious activities, one must call the police. If a serious fight breaks out that … Continue reading

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15. What Must One Give Up to Minimize Shabbat Desecration?

One need not forgo his Shabbat rest or anything else that is dear to him in order to minimize the Shabbat desecration of another person who is involved in lifesaving activities. In addition, there is a concern that if one … Continue reading

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14. Common Army Questions

Soldiers who are patrolling in a vehicle on Shabbat may not deviate from the established route in order to eat in a more convenient outpost or to meet up with friends, because driving is permitted to them only for the … Continue reading

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