Chapter 22: Shabbat Prayer and Kiddush

01. The Shabbat Amida

The laws of prayer and kiddush on Shabbat are numerous, so we will cover only those that pertain specifically to women.

 

The Shabbat Amida is comprised of seven berakhot. The first three and last three berakhot are identical to the corresponding berakhot in weekday Amida; however, instead of the thirteen middle berakhot, on Shabbat a special berakha about the sanctity of the Shabbat is recited.

Although it would have been possible to recite all the weekday berakhot of the Amida on Shabbat in addition to a special berakha in honor of the day, the Sages did not want to trouble people with lengthy prayer, so they shortened the Amida by replacing the middle thirteen berakhot with just one berakha. However, if one mistakenly began to recite the weekday berakhot and realizes in the middle of one of the blessings that it is Shabbat, she concludes that berakha and only then returns to the Shabbat liturgy; since in principal it would be acceptable to recite the weekday berakhot, once she already began reciting the berakha, it is proper that she finishes it (SA 268:2). 1

The Sages instituted a special berakha for each Amida of Shabbat: Atta Kidashta for Ma’ariv, Yismaĥ Moshe for Shaĥarit, and Atta Eĥad for Minĥa. One who accidentally mixes up one berakha with another, for example by reciting the Minĥa liturgy at Ma’ariv, still fulfills her obligation, because they all address the sanctity of Shabbat. However, if he mistakenly prays a weekday Amida instead of the Shabbat Amida, since she does not mention Shabbat, she does not fulfill her obligation and must pray again. If she realizes her error before finishing the Amida, she returns to the Shabbat berakha and continues from there to the end of the Amida (SA 268:5-6).

  1. While praying Musaf, if one mistakenly begins reciting the weekday berakhot and then realizes that she should be reciting Musaf instead, she immediately stops, even if she is in the middle of a berakha, since there is absolutely no need to recite weekday berakhot in Musaf (MB 268:5; Peninei Halakha: Shabbat, ch. 4 n. 1.

02. Kabbalat Shabbat

Over 400 years ago, the kabbalists of Tzefat began accepting Shabbat by reciting psalms and liturgical poems. Because the Jewish people wished to give expression to the neshama yeteira (the extra soul that one receives when observing Shabbat), this custom was accepted by all Israel and became Kabbalat Shabbat. At that time lived R. Shlomo Alkabetz, who composed the wonderful poem Lekha Dodi that is used to welcome the Shabbat in all synagogues.

It was Arizal’s custom to welcome the Shabbat in a field, facing west toward the setting sun (the Sages say [BB 25a] that the Shekhina is manifest primarily in the west). This custom was accepted in most synagogues; when reciting the last stanza of Lekha Dodi, in which Shabbat is welcomed like a bride, the congregation faces west. Accordingly, even when the entrance to the synagogue faced a different direction, the congregation faces west. Some have the custom to face the entrance to the synagogue, even if it is not to the west, as an expression of the idea that Shabbat is a guest that enters through the door (some Sephardic communities face west throughout the recitation of Mizmor Le-David and Lekha Dodi).

In many synagogues, Friday night services begin relatively late, and the congregation reaches Lekha Dodi after sunset. In order to fulfill the mitzva of tosefet Shabbat (adding on to Shabbat), they must accept Shabbat before sunset by saying “Bo’i kalla Shabbat ha-malka” (“Come, o bride, o Shabbat queen”). Thus, it is best if after Minĥa, before sunset, the gabbai makes this declaration.

Women generally accept Shabbat at candle lighting, thereby fulfilling tosefet Shabbat in an outstanding manner. A woman who regularly prays Minĥa should make every effort to pray Minĥa on Friday before candle lighting, for in the opinion of many poskim, after she accepts Shabbat by lighting the candles, she is unable to pray a weekday Minĥa (MB 263:43). Be-di’avad, if she did pray Minĥa before she lit the candles, she may rely on the lenient opinion. The lenient poskim maintain that even though she accepted Shabbat and is forbidden from doing melakha (labors forbidden on Shabbat), still, she may still pray a weekday Amida (Tzitz Eliezer 13:42; also see Peninei Halakha: Shabbat, ch. 2 n. 6).

03. Va-yekhulu and Magen Avot

In the Amida on Shabbat night we recite Va-yekhulu, the three verses at the end of account of creation (Bereishit 2:1-3) that introduce the idea of Shabbat. The Sages teach (Shabbat 119b) that one who recites Va-yekhulu in the Shabbat evening prayers becomes like a partner with God in creation. God purposely created the world incomplete so that we could become His partners in its repair. Our partnership begins with belief in the Creator, and from there we work to rectify the world and express His glory.

The Sages further teach that one who recites Va-yekhulu in the Shabbat evening prayers is escorted home by two angels, who place their hands on his head and say: “Your iniquity will be removed and your sin will be atoned.” The idea of Shabbat is linked to repentance (teshuva), as attested by their phonetic similarity. Indeed, on Shabbat we are reminded of our faith in the Creator, and from that conviction we return (“shavim”) to all the good aspirations in our souls. One who recites Va-yekhulu on Shabbat eve expresses the profound significance of Shabbat and earns the opportunity for true repentance and atonement for his transgressions.

In the synagogue, the congregation recites Va-yekhulu again after the Amida. Some say that the public recitation of Va-yekhulu serves as testimony to the creation of the world (see Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 4:3). We say Va-yekhulu a third time in kiddush; often, important prayers are recited three times (as in Ashrei and Kedusha).

The Sages instituted that the ĥazan recites Magen Avot or the Berakha Me’ein Sheva (a summary of the seven berakhot of the Friday night Amida) after Ma’ariv, to serve as a sort of Ĥazarat Ha-shatz (see Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 4:2 for further study). This berakha is recited by the ĥazan, so after the congregation sings its opening passage Magen Avot, the ĥazan must repeat it by himself (MB 268:22).

04. Pesukei De-zimra, Torah Reading, and Musaf

Since the time of the Rishonim it has been customary to add psalms to Pesukei De-zimra on Shabbat morning. The added psalms have either creation or the giving of the Torah as their theme, for Shabbat commemorates the creation of the world and the Torah was given on Shabbat. Before Yishtabaĥ, we add Nishmat Kol Ĥai – a prayer of wondrous praise that mentions the Exodus and thus links to Shabbat, which commemorates the Exodus (Tur §281; Levush; see Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 4:4).

After Shaĥarit we read from the Torah and recite a haftara from the works of the Prophets. We already learned about Torah reading (20:15), and, as noted, on Shabbat there are seven aliyot. Here we will add that the purpose of the reading on Shabbat is to complete the entire Torah. During the time of the Talmud, it was customary in Eretz Yisrael to complete the Torah every three years while in Babylonia it was customary to complete the Torah annually, as is the custom today. If on one Shabbat the Torah portion was not read, two portions are read on the following Shabbat so as to make up for the missed portion (SA 135:2).

Following the reading of the Torah and the haftara, Musaf is recited. It corresponds to the additional offerings that we were commanded to bring to sanctify Shabbat. We similarly recite Musaf on every holiday that we are commanded to sanctify through additional offerings (see below, section 6).

05. Haftara

The Sages ordained that in addition to the Torah reading, we read passages from the Prophets (the Nevi’im; the second part of Tanakh) that are related to the weekly Torah portion; one berakha is recited before the haftara and four blessings after.

This reading was instituted as a result of a decree. Once, during Second Temple era, there was a decree forbidding Jews from occupying themselves with Torah. Since they could not read from the Torah on Shabbat, the Sages ordained that a passage from the Prophets be read in the same way the Torah is read; they called up seven olim and recited Birkhot Ha-Torah. After the decree was abolished and they went back to reading the Torah every Shabbat, the Sages ordained that we continue reading passages from the Prophets. This reading is called the “haftara,” as it concludes (“maftir”) the Torah reading. They even ordained special berakhot for reading from the Prophets. Since at the time of the decree seven people were called to read from the Prophets, and each one read at least three verses, the haftara must contain at least 21 verses. However, if a section comes to a close before 21 verses are read, it is permissible to read fewer verses (SA 284:1, MB 2).

So that the haftara does not seem equal to the Torah in importance, the Sages ordained that the person reading the haftara (“the maftir”) is first called up to the Torah. This aliya is therefore called “maftir,” and its purpose is to make it clear that reading from the Prophets alone is not as important as reading from the Torah. Rather, only after reading from the Torah can one continue an read from the Prophets.

Some say that the haftara must be read from a parchment scroll of the Prophets,just like the Torah (Levush). However, many Aĥaronim write that it is permissible to read it from a printed book. Le-khatĥila, it is best to read the haftara from a book that contains that entire work of the Prophets, though be-di’avad it is also permissible to read it from a printed book in which only the verses of the haftara are printed, like they appear in the Ĥumashim nowadays (MB 284:1).

The person called up for maftir must be the sole person reading from the Prophets, and the congregation shall hear his reading. One who wishes to read along quietly may do so, as long as he does not distract neighbors from hearing the reader (MB 284:11; BHL).

06. Must Women Recite the Shabbat Prayers?

As we learned (above, 2:2-5), le-khatĥila women should pray the Amida of Shaĥarit and Minĥa every day (including Shabbat, when they recite the Shabbat Amida). Even if they pray one Amida daily, they still fulfill their obligation, and it is best if the one prayer is Shaĥarit. In extenuating circumstances, they may rely on those who maintain that women fulfill their obligation with Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah. Women who are busy raising children may rely on this opinion le-khatĥila. However, it is proper that even those women who act leniently on weekdays by only saying Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah recite the Amida of Shaĥarit on Shabbat, because on Shabbat there is usually more free time. Many women even enhance the mitzva by walking to the synagogue to pray with the congregation on Friday night and Shabbat morning.

Regarding Torah reading, we learned above (2:10) that according to Magen Avraham (283:6) women must hear Torah reading on Shabbat morning because women too  must hear the whole Torah over the course of the year. However, according to the vast majority of poskim, women are exempt from hearing Torah reading on Shabbat because it is a time-bound mitzva. Halakha follows this opinion. Still, it is preferable for women who wish to enhance the mitzva to hear Torah reading on Shabbat since all agree that although women are exempt, if one does hear it she indeed fulfills a mitzva for which she receives credit (see above, ch. 2 n. 13; whether or not women must hear Parashat Zakhor is addressed below, 23:5).

Concerning Musaf, we learned (2:9) that some poskim maintain that women must pray Musaf (Magen Giborim) and some say they need not (Tzelaĥ). In practice, since it is a rabbinic mitzva, halakha follows the lenient opinion, and there is no obligation for women to pray Musaf, although those who do are credited for it.

07. Should a Woman Skip Passages in Order to Recite the Amida with a Minyan?

It is commonly asked: What should a woman do when she arrives at the synagogue on Shabbat morning and the congregation is about to start the Amida? For men there are detailed halakhot that govern this situation. On one hand, the primary purpose of praying with a minyan is to recite the Amida with the congregation, and one skips Pesukei De-zimra to do so. On the other hand, men may not skip Birkhot Keri’at Shema so that they adjoin redemption to prayer (see Peninei Halakha: Prayer, 14:5 n. 8; 25:4). In contrast, women are not obligated to recite Birkhot Keri’at Shema and hence need not adjoin redemption to prayer. On the other hand, they are not obligated to pray with a minyan.

The answer is that technically every woman may decide for herself how to practice. If she wishes, she may pray the entire service, from Pesukei De-zimra to Keri’at Shema and its berakhot to the Amida. And if she wishes, she may pray the Amida right away with the congregation. This is because women are exempt from Pesukei De-zimra and Birkhot Keri’at Shema as well as from praying with a minyan with the congregation. As a result, there are two values in play, and each woman may choose which value she prefers. Most important is kavana; whatever she thinks will allow her to have more kavana is what she should do.

However, if a woman asks, it is best to recommend that she skip Pesukei De-zimra and Birkhot Keri’at Shema in order to pray the Amida with the minyan. Since a woman’s primary obligation is to pray the Amida only, it is preferable that she prays the Amida in the best possible way, with a minyan. She will also then have the opportunity to answer “amen” and respond to the Kedusha in Ĥazarat Ha-shatz and to hear the Torah reading. She should still make sure to recite Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah before the Amida, and if she has more time she should also say Shema and Emet Ve-yatziv so that she fulfills the mitzva to remember the Exodus and adjoins redemption to prayer. 1

  1. Women are exempt from Pesukei De-zimra according to most poskim, as we learned above, 15:4, and that is the common practice. Women are obligated to recite the Amida according to the vast majority of poskim, as we learned above, 2:2-5. The reason for the enactment to recite Pesukei De-zimra is to prepare for the Amida, for after introductory praises, the Amida is recited more properly, as explained in Peninei Halakha: Prayer 14:1, and is therefore more likely to be accepted. However, the Sages say that the prayer of one who worships with the congregation is certainly accepted (Berakhot 8a); thus, minyan is of greater value of Pesukei De-zimra. When it comes to men, since the Sages instituted berakhot for Pesukei De-zimra, the ruling is that they may not skip them, as explained in Peninei Halakha: Prayer 14:5. However, since women are fully exempt from Pesukei De-zimra, it seems that they should pray the Amida with the minyan. The very fact that a woman comes to the synagogue implies that her foremost desire is to benefit from praying with a minyan, so it is preferable that she prays with the congregation. If she wants, she may recite Shema and its berakhot afterwards, but it is not necessary to make up Pesukei De-zimra (ibid. n. 9). However, I saw that Halikhot Shlomo ch. 5 n. 4 states that since women do not have a mitzva to pray with a minyan, she should pray in the correct order. Nevertheless, it seems that even though there is no mitzva, there is still value in praying with a minyan, for the Shekhina dwells within a minyan, and when a minyan prays it is an auspicious time. Therefore, in my humble opinion, it is preferable that she fulfill her obligation in the optimal way. R. Naĥum Rabinovitch concurs and adds that even concerning men we regret that a prolonged prayer becomes routine and is no longer supplication, so it is not proper to instruct women to add prayers in which they are not obligated, for there is reason to be concerned that doing so will impair their kavana; it is better to have less prayer with kavana than more prayer without. Still, it seems to me that if she can say Emet Ve-yatziv before the Amida, all the better, for we have already learned (above, 16:3) that even though women are technically exempt from remembering the Exodus, some poskim maintain that they must remember it, so Emet Ve-yatziv has an advantage over the other Birkhot   Keri’at Shema. 

08. Kiddush and the Shabbat Meal

Two mitzvot from the Torah constitute Shabbat: the positive mitzva of Zakhor (“commemorate”) and the negative mitzva of Shamor (“observe”). Shamor entails refraining from all melakha (creative labor), whereas Zakhor means remembering the fundamentals of faith. The first principle we remember on Shabbat is the creation of the world, and the second is the Exodus.

Although Zakhor is a positive time-bound mitzva, women are obligated in its fulfillment just as men are since Zakhor and Shamor were uttered together in the Ten Commandments and have equal status. Therefore, just as women are obligated in the negative mitzva of Shamor, so too they are obligated in Zakhor. Since men and women have an equal obligation, a woman can make kiddush (a fulfillment of Zakhor) on a man’s behalf. Yet a minor cannot make kiddush on an adult’s behalf, since minors capable of grasping the idea of Shabbat are only rabbinically obligated in kiddush, whereas adults have a Torah obligation (SA 271:2).

The Sages ordained fulfilling the mitzva of Zakhor by saying the Friday night kiddush over a cup of wine. There are two berakhot in the nighttime kiddush: Ha-gafen on the wine and Mekadesh Ha-Shabbat on the sanctity of Shabbat. The recitation of kiddush over wine immediately before the meal teaches that the sanctity of Shabbat is expressed on all levels – not just the spiritual aspects of life, but even the material aspects. It is therefore recited over wine, which brings joy, and before a festive meal.

The Sages further ordained that kiddush be recited over wine during the day, just before the morning meal. By beginning the meal with kiddush, it is apparent that this meal is significant and special, and it reminds us of the holiness of Shabbat. Since the basis of the obligation of the daytime kiddush is rabbinic, no special berakha was instituted in honor of Shabbat; only Ha-gafen is recited, though verses relating to Shabbat are customarily recited beforehand. The Shabbat-day kiddush is called “Kidusha Rabba” (the “great kiddush”) euphemistically, as the nighttime kiddush is more important (see Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 5:1-3 for more on these laws).

Like men, women are obligated to eat three meals on Shabbat and to have leĥem mishneh (SA 291:6l; MB and BHL ad loc.).

09. Eating and Drinking Prior to the Nighttime Kiddush

When the time for Zakhor – fulfilled through kiddush – arrives, it is a mitzva to fulfill it with alacrity. So that this mitzva is not neglected, the Sages prohibited eating or drinking, even just water, before kiddush. However, one may wash out one’s mouth or swallow medication with water (SA 271:4; MB 13; SSK 52:3).

On Friday night, this prohibition applies the moment Shabbat begins. Therefore, a woman who accepted Shabbat when lighting the candles may not drink until she fulfills the mitzva of kiddush. A daughter who does not light candles must accept tosefet Shabbat by saying “Bo’i kalla Shabbat Ha-malka,” and from that point on she may not eat or drink until kiddush. Likewise, a man who accepted tosefet Shabbat may not eat or drink until he fulfills the mitzva of kiddush (MB 271:11; See Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 5:9).

10. Eating and Drinking Before Kiddush on Shabbat Morning

On Shabbat day, the prohibition to eat and drink begins at the time when it would be proper to recite kiddush. A woman who does not generally pray Shaĥarit on Shabbat (see above, 2:2-5) may not eat or drink from when she wakes up until she recites Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah and fulfills the obligation to recite kiddush.

For a woman who normally prays Shaĥarit on Shabbat, the time to recite kiddush begins after she prays Shaĥarit; from the time finishes Shaĥarit, she may not eat or drink until she fulfills the obligation of kiddush. Before praying, too, she may not eat or drink; although the prohibition on eating or drinking before the daytime kiddush does not yet apply, the prohibition on eating or drinking before prayer applies, as one must not put her needs before God’s honor. Nevertheless, she may drink water or take medicine, since drinking them is need-based and not an expression of arrogance.

A woman who knows that her mind will remain unsettled unless she drinks coffee or tea may drink them before praying, because there is no arrogance in drinking them; rather, she drinks out of need, to settle her mind and have kavana in her prayer. If possible, it is preferable that she drink the coffee or tea without sugar and milk. One who is concerned that if she does not eat anything she will be so hungry that she will be incapable of having proper kavana may eat a bit of cake or fruit before praying. 1

In extenuating circumstances, a woman who does not know how to make kiddush but is thirsty and finds it difficult to wait to hear her husband say kiddush may recite Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah and drink before kiddush. If she becomes hungry, she may eat as well in extenuating circumstances. This is because there is an opinion that nowadays women are exempt from kiddush (Maharam Ĥalawa), and in extenuating circumstances one may rely on this opinion. 2

A married woman whose husband prayed early in the morning and returned from prayer wanting to recite kiddush and eat with his wife may partake in his kiddush and eat together with him, even if she intends to pray Shaĥarit afterward, because a healthy and halakhic family framework dictates that a woman eats with her husband. Nonetheless, she should take care to recite Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah beforehand (see above, n. 3, regarding the opinion of Igrot Moshe as well as 8:10).

A minor who has reached the age of education should le-khatĥila be habituated not to eat before kiddush; however if she is hungry or thirsty, she may eat and drink before kiddush (SSK 52:18; Yalkut Yosef 271:17).

  1. As we learned above in 2:2-5, in principle women must pray one or two Amidot every day; therefore it is proper that every woman pray Shaĥarit on weekdays and Shabbat. However, many women rely on the minority of poskim who maintain that according to Rambam a woman fulfills her obligation to pray by reciting Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah, and women who are busy taking care of their children adopt this practice le-khatĥila because they are exempt from prayer. Therefore, there is a distinction between a woman who normally prays Shaĥarit on Shabbat and one who usually does not, as explained in SSK 52:13. Even if she only prays Shaĥarit regularly on Shabbat, she can have in mind not to fulfill the obligation of prayer through Birkhot Ha-shaĥar and Birkhot Ha-Torah, thereby allowing her drink before prayer (SSK ad loc. n. 44; see also Halikhot Beitah 15:25). According to Igrot Moshe OĤ 4:101:2, a married woman has a special status: since she dines with her husband, her obligation of kiddush follows his. If he did not yet finish praying, she may eat and drink, because she did not yet become obligated in kiddush. R. Shlomo Zalman Auerbach concludes that this matter requires further study (SSK ad loc. n. 46), but in times of need, one may rely on Igrot Moshe.

    A woman who normally prays Shaĥarit may drink coffee or tea before prayer, and if she is so ravenous that she cannot have proper kavana in her prayer, she may eat a bit of cake as well. However, according to MB as cited in BHL §289, one who eats before Shaĥarit must recite kiddush. Igrot Moshe OĤ 2:28 and Yalkut Yosef 289:5 concur. However, Responsa Keren Le-David §84, Ĥelkat Yaakov 4:32, and other Aĥaronim state that the obligation of kiddush only applies after prayer, and that is implicit in the words of SA too. Thus, one who may eat before prayer should eat without kiddush. This is the prevailing practice, as I wrote elsewhere (Peninei Halakha: Shabbat 5:9). Regarding men and eating before prayer, in Peninei Halakha: Prayer 12:7 I was more stringent because men have a more strict status, as explained above, ch. 8 nn. 5 and 6. 

  2. According to Maharam Ĥalawa, women are exempt from the daytime kiddush. Additionally, Raavad and those who follow his approach maintain that there is no prohibition to eat before the daytime kiddush. Moreover, there are those who explain the opinion of Rambam to mean that although it is forbidden to eat and drink before kiddush, water is permitted. Therefore, in times of need, a woman may drink before kiddush, and in extenuating circumstances, she is even permitted to eat, as stated in Responsa Minĥat Yitzĥak 4:28:3; SSL 52:13, and Yalkut Yosef 289:6.

11. Havdala

Women are obligated in the mitzva of Havdala just as men. Even though it is a positive time-bound mitzva, according to most poskim, Havdala is part of the mitzva of Zakhor, which commands us to mark Shabbat at its arrival with kiddush and at its departure with Havdala. Even according to those who maintain that Havdala is a rabbinic mitzva, the Sages instituted it for women as well, like kiddush.

There is an opinion that Havdala is a separate mitzva instituted by the Sages and that it is not a part of Zakhor and therefore, since it is time-bound, women are exempt from it (Orĥot Ĥayim). Out of consideration for that opinion, it is preferable le-khatĥila for a woman to hear Havdala recited by a man, for he certainly has the obligation to fulfill the mitzva of Havdala. However, if there is no man present who must recite Havdala, she recites it for herself, in accordance with the opinion of the vast majority of poskim. When she recites Havdala, she recites all of its berakhot. 1

  1. According to Rambam, She’iltot, Smag, Sefer Ha-ĥinukh, and most of poskim, the mitzva of Havdala is from the Torah, as Zakhor requires marking Shabbat at its beginning (through kiddush) and end (through Havdala). Several Rishonim (Meiri and Nimukei Yosef in the name of Ritva and Magid Mishneh) understand that even Rosh and the Rishonim who hold that Havdala is a rabbinic enactment maintain that it was instituted on the model of kiddush, and that women are obligated in Havdala just as they are obligated in kiddush. Only Orĥot Ĥayim maintains that Havdala is a rabbinic mitzva and is completely disconnected from Zakhor, and that since it is time-bound, women are exempt from it. Rema 296:8 shows concern for this opinion and writes that consequently women should not say Havdala themselves but should hear a man recite it. However, Baĥ, MA, and other Aĥaronim state that a woman who wants to recite Havdala for herself may and it is a mitzva for her to do so since, according to Rema and many Rishonim, women may recite berakhot on time-bound mitzvot (above, 2:8). Therefore, according to Rema, women who wish to say Havdala may, and even though according to SA women do not recite berakhot on time-bound mitzvot, in this case, because the vast majority of poskim maintain that women are obligated in the mitzva of Havdala and some even say that their obligation is from the Torah, they may make Havdala without concern of reciting a berakha le-vatala.

    Still, MB as cited in BHL implies that if a woman makes Havdala she does not recite the blessing over fire (“borei me’orei ha-esh”) because this berakha is not part of Havdala. SSK 58:16 states this as well. However, many Aĥaronim (Igrot Moshe ĤM 2:47:2; Yeĥaveh Da’at 4:27; Tzitz Eliezer 14:43) challenge this notion and maintain that the berakha on the candle is part of Havdala and therefore that women who recite Havdala recite all four blessings.