Peninei Halakha

5 – When to Count

The Omer count begins on the night of the sixteenth of Nissan, as it says, You shall count for yourself seven weeks; from when the sickle begins [to cut] the standing crop shall you begin to count seven weeks (Devarim 16:9-10).  “From when the sickle begins [to cut] the standing crop” refers to the cutting of the Omer, for the first harvest of the yearly produce is designated for the Omer offering.  And the Omer is harvested on the night after the first day of Pesach, which is the sixteenth of Nissan.  That is when the count begins.

One must count at night, because the Torah says about the Omer count, Seven weeks; they shall be complete (VaYikra 23:15), meaning whole.  As is well known, a calendar day consists of night and day, and if we want to include all the nights and days of the seven weeks, we must start counting on the night of the sixteenth of Nissan (Menachot 66a).  And in order to include all [twenty-four] hours of the day, it is worthy to count at the beginning of the night.  People are careful about this especially at the beginning of the count, on the first night, so that the count will include every hour of the seven weeks.  Nonetheless, it is meritorious to count at the beginning of the night every night, so that each day’s count will be whole and will include the entire 24-hour period.

Even though it is best to count at the beginning of the night, one is not obligated to do so.  Therefore, one who needs to pray Ma’ariv must do so before counting the Omer.  After all, the rule is that more frequent mitzvot take precedence over less frequent ones, and the mitzvot of reading the Shema and praying Ma’ariv are in practice all year round, making them more frequent than the Omer count (Chok Natan; see B.H. 489:1, s.v. achar).[4]

[4]. It seems that the Rambam and the Ran hold that it makes no difference when one counts at night.  However, our Sages say regarding all mitzvot, “The zealous do mitzvot promptly.”  According to Tosafot and the Rosh, it is better to count at the beginning of the night, because then the count is more complete.  The Shulchan Aruch (489:1) rules that one should count at the beginning of the night.  The Mishnah Berurah (2) and Kaf HaChayim (12) agree.  Nevertheless, we pray Ma’ariv first, because the mitzvot of reading the Shema and praying Shemoneh Esrei are more frequent (Chok Ya’akov).  However, the author of Mor U’Ketzi’ah holds that one should count first, because the time for counting is at the very beginning of the night, while Shema and Shemoneh Esrei can be delayed, le’chatchilah, for a half-hour.  In practice, we count after the Ma’ariv prayers (B.H. 489:1), because counting at the beginning of the night is not an obligation, just an embellishment, for as long as one counts at night, he fulfills “They shall be complete.”  Therefore, we give precedence to Shema and Shemoneh Esrei, which are more frequent.

In order to avoid delaying the count, many [poskim] suggest that we count immediately after the “TitkabelKaddish, with which we end the Amidah (standing prayer), before Aleinu, which is an additional prayer.  This is found in the Mishnah Berurah (489:2) and Nahar Mitzrayim, and most Jews follow this custom, including all Ashkenazim and most Jews who come from North Africa.  Nonetheless, many Jews who pray according to the Sefardic version of prayer count after Aleinu, in order to first finish everything that is usually said in the Ma’ariv service.

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Translated By:
Series Editor: Rabbi Elli Fischer

The Laws of Shabbat (1+2) - Yocheved Cohen
The Laws of Prayer - Atira Ote
The Laws of Women’s Prayer - Atira Ote
The Laws of Pesach - Joshua Wertheimer
The Laws of Zemanim - Moshe Lichtman

Editor: Nechama Unterman