In order to fulfill the mitzva of kiddush, a melo lugmav of wine must be drunk by the person making kiddush or a member of his audience (as explained in section 5 of this chapter). The rest of the listeners thus fulfill their obligation in kiddush even if they do not partake of the wine. Ideally, each listener should drink from the kiddush wine (SA 271:14).
If the person who made kiddush drank directly from the kos, he should not then pour from this kos into cups for the listeners, since the wine is now pagum (as we learned in section 6). However, as long as family members are drinking directly from the kiddush cup they are not considered drinking pagum wine, because their drinking is considered an extension of the original drinking. It is only when the wine is poured into a different cup that it is considered pagum (SHT 271:89; MB 182:24).
Thus, one who wishes to pour the kiddush wine into the cups of his audience should first add a little wine from the bottle to the kos. This fixes the cup’s wine, and it may then be poured for the other people present (SA 182:6; MB 271:82; SHT 271:89). Another solution is for the person making kiddush to pour a melo lugmav from the kiddush cup into his own cup, and drink the wine from there. This way the wine in the kiddush cup is not pagum, and he may pour from it into the cups of the listeners. It is often necessary to add wine to the kiddush cup so that everyone who listened to kiddush can have a taste.
There is another method: Before making kiddush, a little wine can be poured into the cups of all present. After hearing kiddush they can drink this wine. In this case, the person making kiddush need not pour wine for them from his kos at all, since the wine before them at the time of kiddush is considered kiddush wine. There are two advantages to this: 1) The audience’s time lag between making the berakha and drinking the wine is shortened. 2) There is no issue of pagum at all. This is particularly suitable for a large audience and for guests who may feel uncomfortable drinking wine poured from the cup that the person making kiddush drank from (SA 271:16-17; MB 83). If the listeners do not have a revi’it of wine in their cups, they should not drink until after the person making kiddush drinks (SSK ch. 48 n. 74).
Even if the listeners do not plan to drink from the wine, they should still remain silent until the one making kiddush has drunk a melo lugmav. Be-di’avad, if they spoke before he drank, they have still fulfilled their obligation (SSK 48:6). If they wish to drink the wine, they should remain silent until after drinking.
. If one heard kiddush or havdala but did not hear the berakha of Ha-gafen, he has fulfilled his obligation, because only the person making kiddush must have wine in front of him. Those listening fulfill their obligation even if they did not hear the berakha over the wine (SSK 47:40). However, if they wish to drink from the wine, they must recite Ha-gafen themselves.If, after hearing kiddush but before drinking, one of the listeners spoke about something unrelated to kiddush or the meal, than he must recite Ha-gafen himself before he drinks (Beit Yosef; MA; Taz; MB 167:43; SSK 48:6). However, according to Rema and Ben Ish Ĥai, if the one who made kiddush has already drunk from the wine, then the listener does not need to make another berakha. There is a disagreement among the poskim in the case where the person who made kiddush spoke before drinking, and those listening did not speak. In practice, since whenever we are in doubt about a berakha we are lenient, the listeners in this case drink but must not make a new berakha. See Harĥavot and Peninei Halakha: Berakhot 3:4 and n. 4.