06. Making Up a Missed Prayer (Tashlumin)

A woman who regularly prays once daily and did not manage to pray Shaĥarit before ĥatzot (as explained above, 8:1) must wait until half an hour after ĥatzot and then pray Minĥa. If she does not manage to pray Minĥa before sunset, she prays Ma’ariv.

One who regularly prays Shaĥarit and Minĥa every day is subject to tashlumin – the enactment of make-up prayers. If she forgets Shaĥarit, she prays Minĥa twice, the first time as Minĥa and the second to make up for the missed Shaĥarit.

If she forgets Minĥa but regularly prays Ma’ariv, she makes up the missed Minĥa after Ma’ariv. If she does not usually pray Ma’ariv, she may pray Ma’ariv if she wishes and then pray another Amida after that to make up for the missed Minĥa. However, she is not obligated to do this since she would not normally pray Ma’ariv and thus would not normally have the opportunity to make up for the missed Minĥa. Nevertheless, one may certainly not make up the missed Minĥa after Shaĥarit, for the Sages enacted tashlumin to make up for an immediately preceding prayer that was missed. Once the time for that subsequent prayer has lapsed, tashlumin is no longer an option (Peninei Halakha: Prayer 18:5).

If one forgets to pray Minĥa on Erev Shabbat and wants to make it up after Ma’ariv of Shabbat, the make-up prayer follows the text of the Shabbat Amida (ibid.). 1

The make-up prayer must be recited after the obligatory one. If one intended to recite her first prayer as the make-up and the second one as the obligation, she has not fulfilled her obligation of tashlumin, and she must pray a third Amida as tashlumin (ibid.).

One should pause between the two recitations of the Amida for the amount of time it takes to walk four amot. Be-di’avad, if one was supposed to make up a missed Shaĥarit but forgot to pray tashlumin right after Minĥa, she may make it up as long as the time for Minĥa did not yet lapse, meaning as long as the sun did not yet set (ibid.).

There is no tashlumin for Musaf, since musaf offerings are only brought on specific days. Similarly, one who forgot to pray Shaĥarit on a day that Musaf is recited cannot make up Shaĥarit with an extra Musaf and instead must make it up after Minĥa (ibid.).

Tashlumin was only instituted for one who was unable to pray due to circumstances beyond her control or for one who accidentally forgot to pray; however, one who intentionally missed one of the prayers may not make it up (ibid.).

  1. Tashlumin for women, including the issue of making up Friday Minĥa at Shabbat Ma’ariv,  is addressed in MB 263:43 and Kaf Ha-ĥayim 263:65. Halikhot Shlomo: Prayer, ch. 13 n. 10 infers from MB that a woman who regularly prays Minĥa, even if she does not usually pray Ma’ariv, must pray Ma’ariv so that afterward she may make up the missed Minĥa. Nevertheless, it seems more plausible that MB suggests the best course of action but does not regard it as an obligation. Moreover, perhaps many women were accustomed to praying Ma’ariv on Shabbat night, and therefore MB recommended making up the Minĥa prayer after Ma’ariv without intending to obligate women to do so. (See Halikhot Bat Yisrael 2:20 and Ishei Yisrael 30 n. 6, which cite R. Shlomo Zalman Auerbach as stating that this is not an obligation, thus contradicting what is stated in his name in Halikhot Shlomo.)