On special days, we add sections to the Amida pertaining to the themes of the day. Some additions, if forgotten, prevent one’s fulfillment of the duty to pray, and other additions must be recited le-khatĥila, but be-di’avad, if omitted, do not preclude one from fulfilling her obligation.
On Ĥol Ha-mo’ed of Pesaĥ and Sukkot, the Ya’aleh Ve-yavo paragraph is added in Birkat Ha’avoda. If one already concluded the Amida but forgot to recite it, she must repeat the Amida. If she did not yet finish the Amida, she goes back to the beginning of Birkat Ha’avoda, adds Ya’aleh Ve-yavo, and then continues on until the end of the Amida. We also recite Ya’aleh Ve-yavo on Rosh Ĥodesh. If it was omitted in Shaĥarit or Minĥa, the Amida must be repeated. However, if forgotten in Ma’ariv of Rosh Ĥodesh, it is not repeated, because when the new month was sanctified in Jerusalem based on the testimony of eyewitnesses, there was no sanctification at night, and so the sanctity of Rosh Ĥodesh does not yet apply at Ma’ariv (SA 422:1).
On Motza’ei Shabbat, we add Havdala (Ata Ĥonantanu) to the berakha of Ata Ĥonen. If forgotten, it is not repeated, since she will fulfill her obligation later with Havdala over wine (SA 294:1).
On Ĥanuka and Purim, Al Ha-nisim is added in Modim. If one forgets to recite it, she does not go back, since these holidays are rabbinic, and forgetting to mention them does not prevent one from fulfilling her obligation (SA 682:1).
On fast days, individuals add Aneinu in Shome’a Tefila. Ashkenazim only recite it at Minĥa (Rema 565:3), whereas Sephardim recite it throughout the fast: on Tisha Be-Av at in Ma’ariv, Shaĥarit, and Minĥa, and on the other fast days at Shaĥarit and Minĥa (Kaf Ha-ĥayim 565:17). Some have the custom to recite it at Ma’ariv on all fast days (R. Masoud Ĥai Rakaĥ, Maharitz). According to all customs, one who forgets to say Aneinu does not repeat the Amida.
During the Ten Days of Repentance from Rosh Hashana through Yom Kippur – days of judgment during which God’s dominion is manifest – we conclude the third berakha of the Amida with “Ha-Melekh ha-kadosh” and Hashiva Shofteinu with “Ha-Melekh ha-mishpat.” If one mistakenly says “Ha-Kel ha-kadosh” in the third berakha, she must return to the beginning of the Amida since, as we have learned, the first three berakhot are considered one unit, and anyone who makes a mistake in one of them must go back to the beginning. If she corrects herself immediately (tokh kedei dibur), that is, within the amount of time it takes to say three words at a normal pace, she continues praying.
If one accidentally concludes Hashiva Shofteinu as usual (with “Melekh ohev tzedaka u-mishpat”) and does not correct herself tokh ke-dei dibur, according to the custom of Ashkenazim and some Sephardim, she fulfills her obligation be-di’avad, because even in the regular formulation the word “Melekh” (“King”) is used (Rema 118:1; Ben Ish Ĥai, Nitzavim 19; Kaf Ha-ĥayim 1). Other Sephardim maintain that she does not fulfill her obligation because she did not recite the correct wording for the Days of Awe. Therefore, if she has not yet finished her Amida, she must return to Hashiva Shofteinu, conclude it appropriately, and continue until the end of the Amida. If she already finished the Amida, she must pray again while stipulating that if she was not obligated to repeat the prayer, the second prayer is considered voluntary (SA 118:1; Yeĥaveh Da’at 1:57).
There are four other additions made during the Ten Days of Repentance: “Zokhreinu,” “Mi Kamokha,” “U-khetov,” and “Be-sefer Ĥayim.” If any of them are forgotten, the Amida is not repeated (SA 582:5). 1
- If one accidentally recites Ya’aleh Ve-yavo, Zokhreinu, or Al Ha-nisim on a regular weekday, she must go back to the beginning of the berakha. If she already went on to the next berakha, she continues despite her mistake (Peninei Halakha: Prayer, ch. 18 n. 2). ↩