04. The Amida When Yom Tov Coincides with Shabbat

When Yom Tov and Shabbat coincide, the Amida is that of Yom Tov, with Shabbat-specific insertions. Each time both Shabbat and Yom Tov are mentioned, Shabbat is mentioned first, as it is both holier and more frequent. The conclusion of the middle berakha is “Who sanctifies Shabbat, Israel, and the seasons.” Shabbat precedes Israel because the Jews are responsible for the sanctification of the festivals, but not of Shabbat. The sanctity of Shabbat stems from the time of creation and thus preceded the existence of the Jewish nation. It is fixed and enduring (Beitza 17a; above 1:3). At first glance, it would seem that two berakhot should be recited in the Amida, one for Shabbat and one for Yom Tov. Nevertheless, since both of the days demonstrate sanctity in time, they were combined into one berakha. Furthermore, the sanctity of Israel and the festivals is revealed through the fixed and enduring sanctity of Shabbat, and thus these two sanctities are in a sense only one.[3]

[3]. Beitza 17a. According to Beit Shammai there, when Yom Tov coincides with Shabbat, eight berakhot are recited in the Amida (rather than seven), with one each for Shabbat and Yom Tov. According to Beit Hillel, seven are recited. The middle berakha begins and ends by mentioning Shabbat, and the sanctity of Yom Tov is mentioned in between. R. Yehuda Ha-nasi says that the conclusion of the berakha should include both Shabbat and Yom Tov. The halakha follows this last position. If one praying mentions Yom Tov in the middle of the berakha but concludes by mentioning Shabbat alone, he has fulfilled his obligation, since R. Yehuda Ha-nasi concedes that the halakha follows Beit Hillel, and it is enough to mention Yom Tov in the middle and conclude with Shabbat alone. Nevertheless, he thinks that le-khatḥila it is preferable to mention Yom Tov in the conclusion as well (Bi’ur Halakha 487:1 s.v. “mekadesh”).

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